Indoor pollution

Indoor pollution is the accumulation of pollutants in enclosed spaces such as buildings (houses, offices, factories, etc.) and vehicles (cars, planes, trains, buses, etc.). Contaminants can originate outside and trapped in, or can originate from materials and processes that exist inside.

Currently most of the world’s population lives in cities. We live, work and travel in confined spaces and are increasingly less time outdoors. Today we spend about 90% of our time indoors, without paying attention to pollutants around us. Did you know that the air in enclosed spaces is two to five times more polluted than outdoor air? Also, people more susceptible to the effects of indoor pollution are the same people who spend more time in, such as infants, the elderly and people with chronic diseases.

Indoor pollution affects your body depending on the type of pollutant. Some contaminants can affect the nervous system or the production of hormones. In such cases, the effects are not noticeable at first but substances accumulate in the body up to a level that causes serious damage. Indoor pollution can cause problems that appear mysteriously seem to have no origin, sometimes are subtle changes that go unnoticed or are attributed to other causes. For example, if every time you enter your home or office you start to feel tired, cranky and a little nauseous, it may be due to indoor pollution. Although some of the symptoms may also be due to some psychological reaction to the place, indoor pollution is the sole cause of a condition known as Sick Building Syndrome. Its symptoms include

If you think you may be suffering due to indoor pollution, you should seek the support of professionals trained to detect the most common contaminants to make an assessment of the possible sources of contamination around you.

Apart from air pollution ng entering from outside and concentrated in, there are many sources of pollution that originate inside. Building materials, chemicals that are applied to furniture manufacture, cleaners and flavorings, hygiene and beauty, dust, smoke and toxic gases, pets, household pests, mold and bacteria can all cause health problems, but usually becomes problematic when there are many sources of pollution in the same space or when there are problems with air circulation. In these cases the concentration of pollutants exceeds the body’s ability to purify themselves. In addition, some individuals are more sensitive to pollution and can feel the effects long before other people. It is especially important to be aware of indoor pollution when it comes to sensitive people, babies, children, pregnant women, the elderly and people with respiratory or immune problems. Some contaminants commonly found indoors, along with their sources, are

There are three main strategies to reduce or eliminate indoor pollution.

To avoid the accumulation of pollutants in your home, follow these simple steps

More information (in English) on indoor pollution is here.

Types of natural materials for building

Everyone needs a place to live. Throughout history, people have met this need with varied techniques and materials, depending on location, climate and soil.

There are many types of materials that can be used to build a house, you only need to walk around the place to identify what materials is about. Some of the most common materials in traditional construction are

The stones can be used to make the entire structure of the house or as a foundation for a structure made of another material.

There are different types of stones that are useful for building; some are more common for foundations, other for walls, flooring, finishing and for many other different applications.

Bamboo is a very strong plant that has been used since ancient times for building homes, furniture, tools and large buildings. Some types of bamboo have strength comparable to tin, and is currently doing enough research on their ability to withstand different amounts and types of pressure in high buildings. Much of this research is being done in Asia (especially in China) because bamboo is an important part of history and oriental culture. In green building it is very common to use bamboo for its rapid growth and negative carbon footprint.

The land is something that exists anywhere in the world and therefore has been used in various ways for construction. It can be combined with other materials such as sand, gravel, straw, horsehair, and cow or horse manure.

The mixture is made to build with mud or soil must have a specific consistency to be firm without cracking. The ideal for building soil contains clay, clay, sand and a fibrous organic material, it may also include some gravel. The proportion of mud and sand is very important because the balance of these two materials is what gives strength to the construction. The fibrous organic material (horsehair, straw and manure) acts as a tissue that gives consistency and firmness. In the event that the land that occurs naturally in a place does not have the correct proportions to build, you can add sand, mud or straw to balance it. This mixture is called adobe.

Throughout history it has incorporated a myriad of materials in conjunction with Adobe, because it is a rich and flexible material.

Wood is a renewable and sustainable material. Although see wooden buildings make us think of deforestation (and rightly so, because now a lot of wood comes from unsustainable sources), with good management of virgin forests, forest ecosystems and timber plantations, could take advantage of this natural material and non-toxic without harming nature. In contrast, timber production could be done in a very beneficial way to the environment. Today you can buy wood (and wood products like paper) eco-friendly companies, seeking FSC Certified label, which ensures that the product does not contribute to desertification or deforestation.

The wood commonly used in construction is extracted from the trunk beneath the bark of trees. To transform a tree wood is first necessary to cut down the tree and then remove the crust and remove the branches, then it gives way to wood to dry later;. More »

This type of organic material is commonly used for the roofs of houses and mingle with clay. The straw can be grass, grass, cattail or other fibrous material. The palm can be of any type. Straw and palm are common in warm, humid places, such as coastal or tropical areas.

In cold places, the straw is used as insulation bales to build walls against the cold. Building with straw bales is a combined technique, since the straw is not used alone but in conjunction with adobe or cement.

Overall straw and palm are used not alone but in combination with wood, bamboo or adobe. For example, you can make a nice house with stone foundation, structure bamboo, mud wall and thatched roof. This would be a nice, green and affordable housing. So do not limit the possibilities are endless.

How does the plan 401 (k) work?

Having worked for so many years and to reach retirement stage, it is most desirable to have sufficient financial resources to cover basic needs of their own age or to maintain the same standard of living in the working stage.

It is therefore good that from the beginning of your working life planifiques and take advantage of the different retirement plans available and one of them is the plan known as 401 (k).

This plan is one of the most used and is only offered by employers in order to encourage savings and promote financial security for retirement of workers.

The plan is to make contributions to an account, which in turn will be deducted from your salary before taxes, allowing you to reduce your taxable income and therefore pay less tax. There are also plans in which you can make after-tax contributions.

The money contributed is then invested in one or more funds that you choose according to your financial objectives, since there are different levels of risk and benefit.

As I mentioned earlier, you can only participate in a 401 (k) if your employer offers it. Some employers allow their workers to enroll in the plan immediately, while others apply a waiting period, or whether employees can start making contributions after serving a certain period of time at work.

The Internal Revenue Service or IRS determines the maximum amount you can contribute in the year, for 2011 the limit is $ 16,500, and if your age exceeds 50 years can make compensatory contributions above the maximum amount, or up $ 5.500 for 2011.

At the time of registration, you must indicate what percentage of your salary you want to contribute per pay period. You must consider that there is a limit and the maximum rate is determined by your employer.

One of the most attractive benefits of the plan is that most employers make matching contributions to the employee’s account, they can be less than or equal to the contributions of workers, making the balance in the account grow faster.

The way the money from 401 (k) is invested determines its growth in the long term. Therefore it is always advisable to change the strategy over time. If you are young, you might want to adopt a more aggressive strategy that most of the fund is concentrated in stocks with great potential for growth, and then as you go closer to retirement age you switch to a more conservative strategy concentrating more liquid assets .

If you change jobs you can take any of the following options

– Transfer the balance to your new employer-sponsored plan, – transfer the balance to an Individual Retirement Account (IRA) – Keeping the same plan if your former employer permits; – Remove the cash balance

Before deciding on the latter option, however tempting it may be, you should consider the associated costs like taxes and 10% penalty for early withdrawal of funds.

You can begin making withdrawals from the account without paying any penalty at the age of 59 ½ years, also if you are fired from the company or disabled and surpass the 55 years. But you must necessarily start withdrawing money after age 70½ because that determines the laws governing 401 (k). The minimum amount of distribution is determined by the IRS based on your life expectancy.

Many 401 (k) plans allow you to get funds by way of loans under certain conditions.

Traditional uses of peppermint and spearmint

The varieties of peppermint and spearmint are many and are readily cross, are commonly recognized by its square and branched stem, opposite leaves, small flowers herringbone and unmistakable aroma. Peppermint is a little softer than the mint and in traditional medicine is used for children, the elderly and people with weak body, apart from these groups mint is most commonly used in the healing preparations. The main medicinal compound is mint menthol, peppermint the two species that produce more menthol are Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis.

In Greek mythology, Mentha was a beautiful and loving Pluto, the god of the underworld nymph, when his wife discovered them, he transformed into a bland Mentha plant.

live or freshly cut plant

Infusion (tea peppermint or spearmint)

To prepare the infusion, simply boiled water and add the desired amount of mint or spearmint. You can use the leaves and stems, the more the proportion of grass, the stronger the infusion. There is no minimum or maximum amount, but for medicinal uses typically a stronger peppermint tea one takes as a common beverage infusion is used.


The decoction is made by boiling the grass between 10 and 30 minutes. You can use a teaspoon dried mint or peppermint per cup of water with fresh grass uses a portion of grass and two parts water.

Essential oil

The capsules of peppermint essential oil are quite effective in improving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. For headache, peppermint oil applied to the forehead and temples is as effective as taking paracetamol (acetaminophen). Some laboratory studies suggest that peppermint oil is active against several types of bacteria and viruses, including herpes and West Nile virus. Finally, many creams for muscle pain contain peppermint oil and camphor as its main active ingredients.

As citrus are processed in an industrial blender

You know what they have in common orange juice, lemon oil and chicken feed? All are made in the same place: an industrial juicer. Citrus juicer extracts various products tangerine, orange, lemon and grapefruit through a highly efficient process. a type of citrus at a time is processed by harvest season, and all equipment is washed before processing the next. Then described how oranges processed for juice, oil and animal feed.

The essential oil is the most valuable product and extracted first. Green oranges have more oil than ripe oranges, and as oil is the product of greater value, this determines the price that pays for oranges juice maker: green oranges obtain a higher price than mature oranges.

All oranges are poured onto a ramp that leads to a roller with many peaks. While oranges pass through the rollers are washed with a water jet passing through the long roller. Oranges roll on the rollers and their shells are filled with holes, and leaves orange oil. At the end of the rollers are channels carrying fluid (a mixture of water and oil) to a centrifuge.

The centrifuge separates water from oil, but it is not perfect and needs another pass. So the first centrifugal oil goes to another centrifuged and again make a second separation. The oil obtained from the second centrifuge is poured into large drums for storage and sale.

As a final step before shipment, the little water that is mixed with the oil settles above the oil naturally in dairy and removed with a hose.

Why orange oil, grapefruit and lemon used?

Citrus oil used to make perfumes, soaps and natural flavorings for food and medicine. Coca Cola is a major buyer of citrus oils, as they are an important ingredient in soft drinks flavor. Lemon oil is good for cleaning wood furniture and wash oily vessels: can be used to develop non-toxic household cleaners.

Leaving the band rolls, oranges are separated according to the size they have. Collide with a panel of different sizes and gates fall into the gate corresponding to its size. On the other side of each gate there is a sharp knife part oranges in half. Hence they are captured by a band with plastic chain. With the pressure of the multitude of each half orange orange it engages in a link of the chain and is taken to a juicer.

Juice concentrate is pasteurized and exposing to heat. In this process the concentrated juice is obtained and leaves unsavory waste water.

Waste water will subterranean passages that function in a manner similar to a septic tank and require maintenance every few years.

Orange peels out clump together and start to ferment. These shells are used as fresh cow and occasionally for other animals such as pigs and sheep feed.

Fresh shells that are not purchased within a certain time become dry feed for cows, sheep, rabbits, chickens and other farm animals. They dehydrate in a large oven and combined with other ingredients to form food and supplements for animal consumption.

18 ideas to start your own business

In this project the creation of a business dedicated to selling hardware products, such as locks, tortillería, tools, fasteners, etc. described

This project involves the creation of a drugstore / perfumery. Specifically, it will be a retailer dedicated to the commercialization of products of drugstore, perfumery and cosmetics.

In this project the creation of a business dedicated to care and vision care and sale of items related to it, such as contact lenses and glasses described.

In this project the creation of a real estate, whose main activity is intermediation in buying, selling and renting all types of real estate described.

The activity developed in this business is the cleaning and drying clothing and any other items that can be cleaned. It is the customer who uses the machines directly and can thus be clean and dry clothes in a short time.

In this project the creation of a business whose activities consist in selling jewelry, silverware, jewelry, filigree and watchmaker described. The project will cover a medium trade jewelry.

The project involves the creation of a nursery. It described therefore a commercial company dedicated to intensive cultivation of plants and seasonal flowers for later sale to the end customer.

In this project the creation of a business whose activities consist of the sale of watches described. The business, besides the sale will include repairing watches.

7 recipes to clean the house without chemicals

While companies that manufacture cleaning products deny, several studies have suggested a connection between these products and certain health problems. So many people prefer to buy organic or green products, but unfortunately these usually cost more money and sometimes do not perform equally. But cleaning must not be toxic or expensive: almost the whole house can be cleaned (and disinfected) with three or four common and inexpensive ingredients.

Indispensable in an ecological house cleaners are baking soda, lemon, vinegar and normal soap. To be even more eco-friendly, you can use soap nuts to make your own multipurpose soap. Other useful cleaners are salt and essential oils.

Dissolve three tablespoons of baking soda in two liters of hot water. Add half a cup of vinegar and two teaspoons of pine essential oil. The combination of vinegar and baking soda is disinfectant and pine essential oil. If you need an antifungal solution, you can also add a teaspoon of essential oil of citronella and other essential oil of lavender. If you find it more convenient, you can prepare a larger amount to bottle the mixture, you can save up to three months in a cool, dark place. Shake the mixture well before using. The amounts of oil can be adjusted according to your tastes, keeping at least 10 drops of each.

Use the same mixture as for floors. To wash a tub or shower tiles with mold, wet the surface with the floor cleaner and then cover it with baking soda, leave a few minutes and scrub with a loofah or brush.

Instead of buying a chemical cleaner for windows in your home, you can use water and sheets of newspaper. Moja a sheet of newspaper and scrub the glass, then dry it with another sheet of dry newspaper.

If the glass is very soiled, you can use a sponge with soap or baking soda and water and then clean with newspaper.

To wash pots by hand, use biodegradable soap or soap nuts. Dissolve three tablespoons grated white soap in three liters of water. Add half cup of white vinegar and lemon juice.

Dishwasher, put three tablespoons grated white soap in the soap container. Fill the rest of the container with vinegar and close the lid.

For pots or pots with food very stuck, first let them soak overnight, then friégalas with steel wool, pumice or some sand. This is not recommended for Teflon pots and pans. If you use sand you should no longer use the same pad with other vessels, especially Teflon, because sand usually stays in the pad.

To clean the stove or other kitchen surfaces, use hot soapy water and a little vinegar, baking soda to scrub and lemon peel for descaling fat.

To polish your wood furniture, mixing Ten milliliters of lemon oil with half a liter of vegetable oil. Dampen a soft cloth with this mixture and rub the wood. It is not necessary to use much! Lemon oil gives a pleasant aroma and also disinfects the surface of the wood. So aside from making your furniture look also cleans and protects. As it requires very little oil to clean the furniture, you can save what is left you in a recycled bottle for use at another time.

Instead of using commercial flavorings that harm the environment, consider one of the following options. To give a fresh scent to any room or to prevent odors in the bathroom

Main concepts to manage your business

To consider the feasibility of your business initiative there are two types of skills or skills that you must possess or acquire to manage your future company

– Know-how

– Knowledge management

It is essential that both capacities to meet the “know-how” requires complemented by management skills, as poor management can wreck a good product or service. In the same way, good management is not enough to succeed if not properly paid service, a quality product is produced.

Know to do

It is important that your business plan is directly related to an activity that you like and motivate you, as one of the keys to business success is the ability of dedication. In addition to the vocational behavior, keep in mind that the ultimate goal of the company should be offering a product or service in the market, so the company must have the knowhow.

If you detect weaknesses or gaps in expertise, there are different ways to strengthen this aspect

knowing how to manage

Knowing setting priorities for tasks to be run on a daily basis is one of the keys to success in the business world. This ability to separate the important from the urgent, you have to be on a date or yes, what can or should wait a little longer, can be considered almost a necessary skill to do to run a business. You may be the best in your profession or have some personal qualities that allow you to perform your activity properly, however, owning a business involves a new task management. This is a fact that should not worry, because I like in most cases, it is something you can learn.


Management is the process of interventions to make things happen in a certain way, on the basis of purposes. Management is confronted with the results, not goals. It is to plan, organize, direct and control the actions of the company. Anyone responsible for a company, or an area of ​​a company, regardless of the characteristics that have the organization, must always carry out these four activities

Always being in the presence of a management process, these functions are implied, although the subdivision presented is for the purpose of analysis, as everything is running simultaneously in a given period of time, and without complying with this order default in which it is presented. What is indisputable is that each of these functions play a role in the process of making a viable, stable and business projections, complementing each other.

Despite the role of each, many authors the relative importance of planning over the others because it involves analyzing your development alternatives and take “safer,” less costly decisions arise.

Understanding mortgage loans: Fixed Rate vs. Adjustable Rate

Many people dream of buying a home of their own, and there are several reasons ranging from not having to pay more rental income, to the fact start building a family estate.

But very few can afford to buy a home, whether home or apartment, in cash, making it necessary to resort to mortgage lending.

Mortgages are long-term loans that are used exclusively for the purchase of real estate, the most common being those with 15 or 30 year term. And the cost of the loan depends on the interest rate can be fixed or adjustable.

These mortgages allow you to pay off the debt in equal monthly installments for a specific period of time ranging between 10 and 50 years term. The 30-year term is the most common.

Monthly fees are directed to pay interest first, and then the capital.

In the first years of the loan, most of your monthly payment goes to interest payments, whereas towards the end of the loan period most of your monthly installment focuses on paying the capital. This can be calculated and observed by an amortization table.

One of the most attractive advantages of fixed interest rate is the security of knowing that whatever happens, your monthly payments will not change until you finish paying the debt, and this even makes it easier to budget your living expenses.

If the interest rate on the mortgage market goes up or down, this at all affect the loan payments you have already acquired. And if the market rate drops considerably, you always have the option to refinance the loan at a lower interest rate.

And you can always make payments for amounts greater than your monthly installments, thus the additional amount can be credited to capital, and consequently will reduce debt faster and save on interest.

You should also consider that in some cases, lenders charge a penalty if you cancel in advance the entire debt within a certain period of time, usually within one to five years.

This type of mortgage is best known by its acronym as ARM (Adjustable Rate Mortgage), and as its name suggests the interest rate varies periodically during the period of the debt, and therefore, your monthly payments can lower or raise.

The interest rate that lenders charge for this type of mortgage is usually lower than that charged by fixed-rate mortgages, making this very attractive option. However, if you choose this option, you must assume the risk that the interest rate rise in the long term, and if this happens your monthly payments will also rise.

During the first years of the loan, usually 2, 3, or 5 years, the interest rate is fixed. Then comes into effect the adjustment period in which the interest rate changes according to an index and a margin determined by the lender. This change will be reflected in your new payment fees, which as mentioned may be higher or lower.

For example, a 5/1 ARM mortgage, the rate will remain fixed the first 5 years, then be readjusted each year until the debt is canceled in its entirety.

This type of mortgage is suitable for people who do not think to keep your home for a long time as they will take advantage of low interest rate during the period of fixed payments, and can sell the home before the interest starts to change.

How to plan the growth of your business

Keep your momentum means looking forward even as you focus on the present. Forecasting and planning are critical to your continued success.

Forecasts for Growth: Strategic Thinking

Strategic thinking is a process by which you learn how to make your business vision a reality by developing your skills in teamwork, problem solving and critical thinking. It is also a tool that helps you cope with the changes, plan and make transitions, and envision new possibilities and oportunidades.El strategic thinking requires that you have a vision of what you want as your ideal for your business results, then you should work towards back to focus on the story of how you can achieve your vision. There are five different criteria on which you should focus.

Organization: The organization of your business involves your employees, the organizational structure of your company and the resources to make it all work.

Note: When you look down at the world from an airplane, you can see much more than when you are on earth. Strategic thinking is quite similar as it allows you to see things from above. By increasing your powers of observation, you will begin to be more aware of what motivates people, about how to solve problems more effectively and how to distinguish between alternatives.

Views: The views are simply different ways of thinking about something. In strategic thinking, there are four views to be taken into consideration when creating your business strategy: the environmental point of view, the point of view of the market, the point of view of the project, and the point of view of measurement . The views can be used as tools to help you think about outcomes, identify critical elements and adjust your actions to achieve your ideal position.

Driving Forces: What are the driving forces that make your ideal outcome happen? What is the vision and mission of your company? The driving forces usually found on the basis of what you want when people focus on your business (for example, what use to motivate others to perform). Examples of driving forces might include: individual and organizational incentives; empowerment and alignment; qualitative factors, such as the definition of the vision, values ​​and goals; productive factors like a mission or function; quantitative factors such as results or experience, and others such as commitment, coherent action, effectiveness, productivity and value.

Ideal Position: After working through the first four stages of strategic thinking, must be able to define your ideal position. Your ideal position should include: the conditions you found to be necessary if you want your company to be productive, the niche in the market that will fill your company, any opportunity that may currently exist or in the future for your company, skills or basic skills required for your company, and the strategies and tactics you will use to achieve your goals.