There are two types of solar energy: solar thermal and photovoltaic solar energy. The best-known solar systems using solar panels use photovoltaics.
Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of solar radiation visible (light) into electricity through solar panels.
Solar panels consist of photovoltaic cells containing silicon, the essential material for converting light to electricity.
To perform this conversion, the cells must be black or dark blue. The silicon content in a solar cell is sufficient to produce current densities between 10 and 40 milliamps at voltages of 0.5 and 1 volt direct current.
When many solar cells together are called photovoltaic modules and have a capacity of between 2 and 100 Watts. A module is commonly known as a solar panel and can bind several panels in series or parallel to form a PV array, this is the satisfying the requirements of the loads necessary for consumption.
The energy produced by the solar panels is direct current (DC) but the system urban electricity is alternating current (AC), therefore it is necessary to make a conversion can be used.
In the case of an independent system that is not connected directly to the network, additional elements may be necessary
Charge controller: Controls the load can reach the investor and / or other parts of the system to prevent overloading or excessive discharge.
Public lighting: In some cities is already using solar energy to illuminate the city at night in addition to the traffic signals.