It is an installation in which the movement of water becomes electricity. Seize the volume and / or water pressure to transform the kinetic energy into electrical energy through turbines.
Hydroelectric power: Hydroelectric power plants are divided into three categories depending on the amount of power they can produce.
1. RESERVOIR: The volume of water that is retained from the melting of mountains or rivers artificially using a dam. This stored water is used mainly to generate electricity, but also can be used to supply water to cities and for irrigation of crops.
GRIDS 2. Filtering: There are metal bars that allow entry and exit of water. Its main function is to prevent the pipes being damaged by solid waste that can come in the water.
3. DAM: The great wall or wall that serves to hold water. Thus it is possible to generate the fall, and fluid pressure necessary to generate electricity.
Dams are usually built of earth or concrete. Concrete dams are the most used for its strength and can be of three different types of prey depending on the function that has the prey.
a) gravity dam: The wall of a gravity dam is pyramidal, the construction of the wall is long lasting and does not require maintenance. The wall height is totally confined to the soil resistance.
b) Dam back: On a dam around the wall has a curved inside causing the water pressure is transmitted directly to the valley walls. This wall needs less concrete gravity dams as long as ground conditions are good, the detail is that it is very difficult to find suitable land to build a dam.
c) Dam buttresses: The wall of a dam buttresses supporting the water pressure by buttresses or pillars of triangular shape. These pillars stop the wall and move the load of water to the bottom of the wall.
4. Skimmer: They are instruments that release of the water that is retained without passing through the engine room.
5. penstock: This is called the pipe through which water flows to the turbine. As the water flows through these channels contains kinetic energy, which increases its speed through gravity.
6. DESTRUCTIVE ENERGY: Protecting infrastructure against the destructive effect of the jet target.
They are used to prevent the energy content of the water falling from the shoulders of a dam to produce large high-rise erosions on the ground as it hit the ground.
7. ENGINE ROOM: The installation where are located the turbines, generators, alternators and other machines regulatory control of the plant.
8. TURBINES: A turbine is a device used to transform mechanical energy into kinetic energy of water currents.
Its main component is the rotor which is where the blades are located. The fluid pressure water causes the blades to rotate.
Hydraulic turbines are classified into two groups depending on the amount of energy that transform.
a) Turbines action: They transform water pressure into kinetic energy 100%, with a maximum inlet pressure and outlet water.
b) reaction turbines: In this type of turbine only part of the water flow is transformed into kinetic energy. In reaction turbines water pressure is stronger at the entrance to the turbine outlet.
Today there are three turbines used in hydroelectric plants.
i) or Pelton Turbine Pressure: it is an impulse turbine. It is used in small volumes and a large fall in height. The Pelton turbine is used with its horizontal axis. The turbine has the shape of a gear but instead of teeth having blades to rotate.
ii) Francis turbine or overpressure: Used to drops of different heights within a boom flow as fluid pressure water varies in the roll. The Francis turbine has its best performance as this toiling in flow between 60 and 100% of the maximum flow. These turbines can be installed with the horizontal or vertical axis being the last one the most used. The Francis turbine is also action. It has the perpendicular blades between two flat surfaces.
iii) Kaplan turbine: The turbine is reaction. It is used in drops small height with medium and large flows. Kaplan turbines can be used with vertical, horizontal or inclined axis, being the most usual vertically. The Kaplan turbine has the shape of a ship’s propeller.
9. ALTERNADOR: The machine used to transform mechanical energy to electrical energy.
10. DRIVING: The feed water to the turbines is done through a complex system of channelers.
These channels are made artificially through concrete structures or digging the soil, depending on the geographical conditions of the water source.
11. VALVES: These are to control the flow of water inside the pipes.
12. CHIMENEAS BALANCING: Son wells pressure turbines to prevent water hammer, this is done with the sudden pressure changes rapid opening or closing of the valves.
There are three basic types of hydroelectric power plants and these are determined depending on the terrain where plant conditions and facilities are built.
Find photos and descriptions of the types of hydroelectric plants here.
Click here to see a video of the operation of a hydroelectric plant.