A hydroelectric plant step is located on a river or a channel where there is flowing water. The facilities are built to optimize the energy from the natural flow of water.
A hydroelectric plant passage or flowing water needs a constant flow of the river to ensure a certain power throughout the year because it does not have a reservoir. During the rainy season and thaw working at full power, while in dry season lowers its power becoming almost zero in some rivers in the summer.
Normally in these plants an optimal point seeks to build the hydroelectric plant taking advantage of a narrowing of the river. In the middle of flowing water turbines must accept the natural flow of the river. When the river carries more water than necessary it is water is lost by reblase.
A hydroelectric pumping station consists of two reservoirs at different levels. Water moves through pumps.
This makes hydropower pumping reuse resources. When demand for electricity reaches the maximum level during the day, the pumping station works similar to a conventional power plant generating the energy required.
The water flowing in the river falls into the upper reservoir and turns turbines that are associated with an alternator. In use the water falls into the lower reservoir and when energy demand is less water is pumped to the upper reservoir to be used again.
The pumping station has reversible turbines, which when put into reverse function as pumps and generators function as motors.
The central reserve reservoir hydroelectric plants are found in the dams.
the dam is built to impound water with three possible reasons: to have a water control and guide it to the turbines, to ensure continuous electricity production during the dry season of the year, even when the river dries up for several months , and to increase the amount of energy that can be produced from the same source of water.
The central reserve reservoir can be of two types: central walk of prey and central bypass water.
The dam is built at a certain height on uneven stretches of the river considered. The fourth turbine is built at the foot of the dam.
These plants with reserve storage cause a great economic investment but in most cases all the possible resource is used to produce more kilowatts / hour at a lower cost.
This center is like a combination between the central passage and the central reservoir.
Water flowing river is deflected through a small dam and is driven by a channel with a slight gap to the reservoir, called loading chamber or pressure. Subsequently, the water is guided through forced into the turbine room and used water is returned downstream by a discharge channel pipes. It is used in rivers and small canals where the current does not produce enough energy, and where a small wall can increase the amount and water pressure to the level needed to generate energy. This structure lends itself to generate energy in small installations such as fish hatcheries.