The word “wind” comes from the Latin root ventus. The wind originates from the planet’s rotation along with the difference in temperature between land and sea. Wind contains kinetic energy (motion) that is used by windmills and wind turbines, which generate electricity.
The energy from the wind is called wind energy. The force of the wind is measured in knots or kilometers per hour using the Beaufort scale, which quantifies the wind speed from a breeze to a hurricane.
Wind energy originates from the sun as a source of heat, air movement is mainly due to an intrinsic property of gases: hot air rises and cold air falls. This is the basic principle governing the generation and movement of the wind. The wide variety of materials and processes that cause the heating and cooling of air at different scales and heights is part of the scientific field known as weather.
The basic movement of air is divided into two types
The sun radiates a large amount of energy, causing the surface of the Earth to warm. However the different materials making up the surface do not absorb this energy as in particular water and earth absorb and release heat at different speeds. This uneven heating produces areas of high and low pressure, which causes movement of the air. On the day the sun warms the land faster than it is on the sea and air coasts expands and rises, causing the wind flow from the sea to the coast. At night the opposite happens as the water retains heat longer than the earth.
The existence of mountains or other geographical irregularities also affects the movement of wind.
Globally, the Ecuador is the part of the planet closest to the sun and, therefore, the warmest. Hence the warm air and the global circulation of wind originates. there is the Doldrums, an area of low pressure where the air circulates primarily vertically and not the wind is between about 10 degrees north and south latitude; this constituted a great danger to the ancient sailing boats. Instead of producing wind (horizontal air movement) in this area hot air rises around 10 kilometers from the surface, while the cold air pushes it, to be on top the air cools and returns to earth.
Wind circulation in the rest of the planet is influenced by the Coriolis effect, this is the name of the movement of air caused by the rotation of the planet and as a result the wind blows from the northeast to the southwest in the northern hemisphere and southeast to the northwest in the southern hemisphere. The same circular exists in the equatorial zone movement occurs in areas that are called the Hadley cells (between 30 degrees north and south latitude, excluding the Doldrums) cells, mid-latitude (30 ° – 60 ° North and south, respectively) and polar cells (60 ° – 90 ° north and south, respectively).
When hot air rises in Ecuador, dropping moves in a similar manner to a source north and south, joining with the currents of the Hadley cells. The combination of different cells, the Coriolis effect and temperature changes in different seasons resulting in a complex system of air movement around the planet, these cycles have a stabilizing effect on the global climate. The absence of these currents, the equatorial zone would be 14 ° hotter and the poles would be 25 ° cooler!